The macroscopic behavior of construction materials can only be fully understood and optimally tailored for a specific application if their behavior on a microscopic and even nanoscopic level is understood as well. New analytical tools such as AFM, FIB and others are used together with the modeling of the thermodynamics to gain new insights in the hydration of cement-bound materials. Based on these results it is possible to get a new approach to questions such as durability of concrete or the function of admixtures. The use of wood, the most important renewable material on national and world-wide scale, is supported by the improvement of the technical, ecological and economical quality of wood, wood based products and systems. A fascinating example is the extraction of cellulose fibrils out of wood with a diameter of only a few nm and length of several µm which can be used as polymer reinforcement, preferably in combination with a biodegradable polymer.